Diabetes in simple words is the increase of blood sugar level which causes various non functioning of body parts. The scientific term of diabetes is diabetes mellitus. It is basically a group of metabolic disease which mainly causes due to high blood sugar level such as increased thirst and hunger, frequent urination. Diabetes when becomes acute it results in severe health issues such as kidney failure, stroke, heart disease, eye damage and foot ulcer.
Types of Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes is the condition when body cannot produce enough insulin. It is also known as juvenile diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes is the condition when body cell does not react properly to the insulin produced. This kind of diabetes mainly cause because of overweight. It is also known as adult onset diabetes.
Gestational Diabetes is the condition when pregnant woman suddenly develop high blood glucose level without previous history.
Other form of diabetes is quiet rare but can cause because of any pancreatic issue or defects, genetic defects of beta cells function or insulin process function or certain medication or surgery.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Some natural symptoms of diabetes are:
- Frequent urination
- Increase in hunger
- Excessive thirsty
- Losing weight
- Often infection in skin, bladder and gum
- Unrecoverable wounds
- Blurriness in vision
- Excessive fatigue
- Numbness of feet and hands
But it is not always necessary that symptoms will be visible sudden appearance also can happen and in adult onset diabetes it can continue for years without giving any symptoms.
The conditions which can turn people to diabetic are:
- Growing age especially after 40
- No exercise or physical activity
- High Cholesterol
- High Blood Pressure
Causes of diabetes and how diabetes harms
Type 1 Diabetes is mainly caused due to loss of insulin producing beta cells mainly at the islet of Langerhans in the pancreas. It mainly occurs in the childhood stage or young stage. It can be also caused because of genetic predisposition.
Type 1 Diabetes can
- Destroy blood vessels in eye
- Causes damage to nerves
- Damages kidney
- In severe cases it can lead up to stroke and heart attack
Type 2 Diabetes is mainly caused because of overweight. It resists insulin and mainly reduces the secretion of insulin in body. Consumption of fatty foods, high sugar and no physical activity and exercise may lead to type 2 Diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes attacks adults but now-a-days teenagers are also its victim.
Type2 Diabetes can
- Harm the blood vessels which can affect eye, kidney, and nerves and can lead to stroke and heart attack.
Gestational Diabetes is mainly occurs during the middle or late pregnancy stage and it occurs because hormones stop producing enough insulin secretion.
Gestational Diabetes can
- Damages fetus and mother
- It can affect baby growth
- It can cause red blood cell destruction
- It also includes the risk of high birth weight of the baby.
- It may also affect eye, nerve and kidney for both mother and baby
Also Read : How to check Diabetes at Home
Treatment of Diabetes
For Type 1 Diabetes
- Injecting insulin through skin to the fatty tissues below
- Periodic test named as A1C to test the blood sugar or glucose level for past three months
- Daily exercise
- Proper diet with low sugar level
For Type 2 Diabetes
- Proper healthy diet
- Regular exercise
- A1C test at a regular interval to check the blood sugar level over the previous period of three months
For Gestational Diabetes
- Proper healthy meal with less calorie, fat and sugar
- Regular exercise
- Control of weight during pregnancy
- Intake of insulin injection if required
Also Read : Sugar and Diabetes
It is always better to have a healthy diet which must contain whole grain fibers, less sugar level, less fat to keep oneself away from diabetes. But one can also get an alarm in the pre-diabetic condition when the blood sugar level starts to get higher than normal. In case diabetes is present genetically in family then it is better to have a check from the childhood stage.